When the purpose of breeding pigs is to obtain high-quality meat, the choice of breeders often stops on the Duroc breed. The breed of pigs Duroc is widespread throughout the world. How to breed Duroc pigs, care for them and feed them will be described in the article. Also below is a detailed external description and nature of the animal.
How did the breed appear?
The history of the species begins with the conquest of America by Columbus. In those days, it was he who brought Guinean pigs to the continent. Over time, local lovers began breeding work on breeding a good meat breed, for which American species crossed with a new Guinean breed. Later there were two lines Duroc: the first was displayed in Jersey, the second in the state of New York.
In 1883, Duroc was officially recognized as a separate American breed.
New York pigs Duroc had a light, strong bones, differed precociousness, paid for the full cost of maintenance. Individuals from Jersey had a rough and very heavy bones, grew slowly, but were very large, which attracted attention. Later, the breed crossed with each other and with the Berkshires. The resulting individuals have absorbed the best qualities from the progenitors. And in 1883, Duroc was officially recognized as a separate American breed.
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Pigs of breed Duroc have remarkable external features. They have a light, but strong bones, males reach 1.8-1.85 m in length, 1.7-1.8 - females. The weight of the first ranges from 300-360 kg, the second - 240-300 kg. As can be seen in size, males and females may not differ.
The back is almost flat, slightly arched, the chest does not bulge, the stomach may sag slightly. Hams brightly outlined, legs high, strong. On each side of the abdomen there are 7 functional nipples located at a great distance from each other, which makes it easier to feed the young. The head is large, has a slightly curved profile. Ears are rather long, always pendant - this is a species attribute!
Weight of males within 300-360 kg, females - 240-300 kg
The color of Duroc pigs ranges from red to golden. Sometimes they are brown, sometimes fiery red (red), there are burns, but the main ones, so that there are no white markings on the animal, this is considered a marriage. Coat covered most of the body. The bottom of the legs, the snout and the ears are either without hair at all, or are slightly pubescent.
The character of pigs and boars is calm, good-natured to each other, to the breeder and to other animals in the compound. They are not shy, normally relate to changes in the content, feeding, breeding sites.
What are the pros and cons of the breed?
Initially, the Duroc pig breed was greasy, but with increasing demand for high-quality pork, the profile of the animal gradually changed. Now it is a meat breed with a large number of advantages inherent in it:
- Often used for breeding new breeds and expensive hybrids.
- The real meat yield is 58-70%. Above the spinal column, fat thickness is 1.2-1.8 cm.
- Young growth is early, in six months it can gain up to 150 kg of weight!
- The quality of fat and meat obtained from the animal is very good. The consistency is homogeneous, there is no unpleasant smell. This so-called marble meat is very expensive, but also incredibly tasty.
- Individuals are distinguished by health, hardy.
- Survival rate of young stock is 91-93%.
Meat of pigs Dyurok marble. Expensive but incredibly tasty
Of the minuses of the Duroc breed, four points must be distinguished:
- susceptibility to atrophic rhinitis;
- small fecundity;
- the need for high protein content in food;
- If fish waste is included in the diet, the pork may have a fishy smell and taste.
It is important to note that it is only necessary to buy a representative of a species in a specialized breeding farm, where the buyer can be given guarantees. The fact is that it is difficult to find purebred individuals, and the translation may not have all the qualitative characteristics of the species.
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Pigsty is made simple but warm
The main condition for maintenance is a spacious, well-designed walking range. Pigs give good meat and lard only with frequent and long-term walking, so it is customary to let them out in the yard from early spring to late autumn, when the first frosts hit. But in order for the animal to walk freely, you need to think about an aviary. There should be equipped with drinkers, feeders, a place to rest (in the shade), a place for walking (the sun). A canopy is obligatory not only to obtain shade, but also to protect from the weather.
Pigsty make simple, but warm. If you slightly raise the wooden floor, cover it with a thick layer of straw, an adult animal will not freeze in winter. You can further insulate the walls of the pigsty. When farrowing, the temperature in the pigsty should reach +25 degrees, so additional heating of the room may be required. Ventilation and the absence of drafts - it is very important that the pigs are not sick.
Feeding can cause problems, as in pigs of the Duroc breed (in piglets in the first place), there is a high demand for protein food. Juveniles feed on mother’s milk until a certain time. But supplement is obligatory, as otherwise, the risk of rhinitis increases.
For feeding of grown-up and adult pigs the mash is made of combined silage, oilcake, legumes, potatoes. Grains can be added to this mixture, but do not forget: barley, oats, and corn cause pigs to become obese and lose their meat features. As a mandatory supplement, bone meal, acorns, dairy products, over-ripe cucumbers, carrots, fodder and sugar beets, zucchini, bread are mixed into the food trough with food. You can feed and waste from the table, but only as an additive! On the types of feed for pigs, read here.
In winter, the daily ration of pigs is divided into 3 doses (morning, afternoon, evening). In summer, the animal is transferred to two meals - in the morning and in the evening. During the day, an adult eats about 2.5 buckets of food (a mixture of everything described above). Piglets eat less, but be that as it may, the animal eventually pays for the costs.
Are there any difficulties in breeding?
The breed of pigs Duroc for sale piglets, not divorced, due to low fertility. For the year, some breeds of pigs give up to 30 pigs, and this one - no more than 20. This is not profitable economically, probably, it is precisely with this that the difficulty of buying Duroc is connected - they simply don’t want to be bred for sale. But to get meat is another matter. In this case, the costs are more than paid off.
During pregnancy to the female, special vitamins for pigs (sold in veterinary stores) are added to the diet. She also needs an abundance of walking and a balanced diet.
Female can give 9-11 pigs at a time
The female can give 9-11 piglets at a time. Due to the developed maternal instinct, she takes almost all the care of the babies, for the breeder, only planned vaccinations, birth assistance, supplementation and the realization of such similar organizational moments remain.
Duroc piglets are born already large (1-1.6 kg). Daily weight gain is 0.75-0.95 kg. Initially, they feed on mother's milk, but from the first days of life, supplementation is needed. This is done so that the young people do not suffer from rhinitis, quickly grew and developed. In addition to supplement usually add an abundance of vitamins, minerals (iron, copper).
After the piglets are weaned, the final fattening begins. In about 180 days, animals gain 100 kg each. From this age they can be allowed to slaughter or leave to continue the race, further mass gain.