Apple trees are the most popular for growing on the plot. There are, probably, in every garden. Culture does not require serious care, but gives very healthy, tasty fruits. However, tall trees complicate care and harvest. Dwarf apple trees were invented relatively recently. This is an interesting variety, growing up to 4 meters in height, but more often it is much lower. About them will be discussed in the article.
Advantages and disadvantages of dwarf apple trees
Dwarf apple trees solve many problems of gardeners that were previously very relevant. So what are the virtues of the species?
Dwarf apple trees solve the problem of lack of free space
- Compactness. In a small garden it is difficult to place many large, spreading trees. Dwarf apple trees solve the problem. Places they almost do not occupy.
- Such a tree begins to bear fruit for 2-4 years, while the harvest from this age they give abundant.
- The stem of the varieties is strong, strong, so that worrying that it will break under the weight of the fruits will not be necessary.
- From the tree it is convenient to collect the fruit for obvious reasons - it is small. Even a small ladder is enough to get to the top.
- Due to the small size of the tree most of the forces spent on the development of fruits, so that they have high quality characteristics.
- The root system develops well and is located in the upper part of the soil, due to which the top dressing and moisture quickly reach the roots, nourishing them.
- Can be planted in areas with a high location of groundwater.
- Nice appearance.
Now a little about the shortcomings.
- The life cycle of dwarf trees hardly reaches 20 years. This is relatively small when compared with simple species.
- The location of the root system in the upper part of the soil has disadvantages. In winter, the chance of freezing increases 2 times. Without insulation or at least mulching, roots will simply freeze when grown in northern and middle latitudes.
- The stem of the varieties is quite resistant to mechanical damage, but there is no branch. They need support, otherwise they may break off if the year is fruitful.
- Trees need care, with a lack of nutrients, watering, pruning, the fruit becomes shallow.
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Dwarf apple trees, like any other crops, are divided into three categories depending on the ripening period of the fruit.
- Early: "Wonderful", "Melba", "Candy", "Early Sweet".
- Mid-season: "Sunny", "landed", "Sokolovskoe".
- Late: "Bogatyr", "Carpet", "Moscow Region Grushevka", "Snowdrops".
Since the root system of such trees is located in the upper part of the ground and can freeze in winter, then 2 months before the cold weather, the variety should be prepared for wintering. Therefore, in cold regions, it is best to plant precisely early varieties, in extreme cases, mid-ripening. Later can not have time to ripen to frost, and the plant itself can not endure such stress with the fruits on the branches.
In the southern latitudes, it is possible to plant late-ripening varieties without fear for their winter hardiness. Before the first serious frosts, the harvest will already be harvested and the tree will have time to prepare for wintering.
Description of the best varieties of dwarf apple trees
Dwarf varieties are not very many, as they appeared relatively recently. But gardeners have already noted the best of them. And they should be guided when choosing.
- "Candy" - an early grade of an apple-tree. It has very fragrant and tasty apples. Ripens in the middle of summer. The weight of each apple reaches 130 grams. The fruits are almost round with green skin and juicy pulp.
- "Wonderful" grows no higher than 150 cm. The crown is wide, it grows, if not cut. Fruit weight140 g, color yellow-green with a red side. The flesh is very juicy.
- "Melba" - summer dwarf apple variety, giving stable yields from year to year. Ripens in July and August. Fruits in the 3rd year after planting. Apples are small, yellow-green with a ruddy side. The flesh is tender, soft, the fruits smell very tasty.
The best varieties of dwarf apple trees
- "Autumn striped" - large-fruited bonsai variety. The weight of an apple reaches 210 g! The taste is sweet-sour, the peel is bright yellow. Fruits differ in keeping quality at a temperature of +6 degrees. Winter hardiness of the tree is not very high, for the winter it should be mulched at the trunk with straw or peat. If you can, you can insulate the crown of the tree.
- "Grushevka Moscow region" - Winter dwarf tree. It starts to bear fruit to the 5th year, from the 3rd one you can already pick up some fruits. The fruits have a slightly elongated shape, the peel is yellow with brown dots. Resistant to many diseases.
- "Hero" - dwarf apple variety for cold regions (Siberia, the Urals). It tolerates even severe frosts, and yet it is highly recommended to mulch the earth at the trunk, in order to protect the roots and simplify the spring restoration. A distinctive feature is a spreading crown to get a neat tree, it is cut all the time. The apples are red-yellow, elongated, sweet-sour to the taste.
This list can also be counted: "Bratchud", "Zhigulevskoe."
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Dwarf varieties have features of the selection of seedlings, planting and further care. Below are the main points in terms of these three points.
Diagram of the correct application of top dressing
- To buy dwarf apple trees are best in specialized nurseries. If you do not have experience in choosing such trees, you can be deceived in the market - they are very similar to tall, still small.
- The main feature of a young plant is large buds and a large number of small roots.
- Plant such trees can be at a distance of 1.5 meters from each other. It will be quite enough that the neighboring crowns are not confused and do not interfere with each other.
- Watering requires regular, roots of dwarf varieties consume a lot of moisture.
- If the crown is not formed, it can grow significantly, so you need to trim at least once every 1-2 years.
- Most varieties are prone to bitter pitting and brown rot - treatment for diseases should be regular.