Varieties of sunflower are oil-bearing, confectionery, simple or hybrid. Differences mainly exist in terms of seed size, their purpose, characteristics of cultivation and the maturation of the crop. Below are considered the best types of sunflower in different categories.
Description and characteristics of sunflower hybrids
Hybrids are annual plants. This is their biggest disadvantage in comparison with cultivars. Otherwise, they differ from varieties only positive qualities.
- Hybrids are harvested on average 15% more yield.
- Seeds are almost universal, only some hybrids have a specific direction. In general, they can be used for fresh consumption or processing into butter.
- The shape of the plants and the resulting seeds, as well as their weight, are about the same.
What are the most popular hybrids for planting?
- "Bogdan " relatively new, high-quality hybrid. The yield may be 50 kg / ha or more! It is grown even on plots with poor soils, without fertilization, is not afraid of the abundance of precipitation and a cool climate. Height of a stalk is 180 cm. A basket of small 18 cm on average. The grain is large, the oil yield is 48-50%. Resistant to almost all diseases. The ripening period lasts 112-118 days.
- "Antey" - srednerosly plant - 175 cm in height. The basket is not very big - 23 cm, fully ripens on 111 days. The core is large, with high oil content - 50-52%. It is resistant to broomrape, shedding, bedding, and the most common diseases, but others are required to be treated. The average yield of 43 c / ha.
- "Odysseus" - oil hybrid of sunflower. Grown on any kind of soil. Recommended for the southern regions, but also in mid-latitudes successfully grows. Plant height 160-170 cm, basket does not exceed 24 cm in diameter. Productivity fluctuates within 45 c / ha. The growing season is 105-110 days. Seeds give large, oil yield up to 50%. Resistant to rot, broomrape, drought.
- "Yang" - high-yielding hybrid. Under proper conditions, up to 50-60 centners of crop are harvested per hectare! Resistant to many diseases. It grows up to 170 cm in height, the bowl is 25 cm in diameter. Ripening requires a minimum of 104 days. The seeds are large, universal use, oil yield 50-52%.
- "Alexey" sunflower hybrid, entered in the state register of Ukraine since 2016. It has high oil content - up to 50%. Productivity 45 kg / ha. Resistant to powdery mildew, lightening, shattering, drought. Grows up to 170 cm, basket - 20 cm in diameter. Ripens in 115 days. The grains are large.
Pastry varieties of sunflowerRead also these articles.
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Sunflower confectionery varieties, or as they used to be called gryzny sunflowers, are grown for fresh consumption or after roasting. These are simple seeds that can be bought in large and small packages under different brands at any grocery store. Their main feature is a large seed and a simple separation of the kernel from the shell.
Pastry varieties of sunflower
- "Nutcracker" - variety bred in the Kherson region. The growing season is 115 days, ripening occurs evenly. Grows even under adverse conditions. Height of culture is 190 cm, the basket is convex, medium size. The mass of one seed is 0.115 g. The yield is 42 c / ha. Oil content of 42-45%, peeling - 23%. Resistant to some diseases: powdery mildew, fomopsis, broomrape.
- "Gourmand" large-fruited (0.13 g seed), mid-season variety, ripens in no more than 110 days. The plant is tall - up to 190 cm. The basket is convex, pubescent, medium size. Up to 35 centners of seeds are collected per hectare. In the composition of 50% of the oil, so that sometimes it is used for the production of butter, and not only as a confectionery culture. Can be grown in extreme conditions.
- "Diamond" - variety of early ripe sunflower. It has a long stem up to 190 cm high. The basket is massive, convex in shape, always tilted to the bottom. Husks at seeds black, at the edges there are gray longitudinal strips. The weight of one seed is 0.12 g, the oil content is 47%. It has an average resistance to diseases, does not crumble, does not lie down. The yield of 28-45 c / ha, depending on the standards of care and soil type.
- "Lux" resistant to most existing diseases and pests that attack sunflowers. The growing season is 105 days, the yield is 34 c / ha. Has a large seed - 0.145 g each, easily separated from the husk. The plant is very tall, can reach 185 cm, the bowl grows up to 27 cm in diameter. Oil content not more than 44%. It is an excellent honey plant. Of the drawbacks, it is worth highlighting only one point - the plants cannot be thickened.
- Oreshek - an early ripe look, ripens in 104 days. Stems reach 170 cm. Seeds are black with characteristic gray longitudinal stripes. Grain weight - 0.15 g. The oil rate in the composition is 45-50%. The yield is about 35 kg / ha.
What are the best oilseeds?
Oilseeds are mainly used for the manufacture of sunflower oil. Such varieties of sunflower have small seeds, although they are quite tasty, the shells are poorly separated from the kernel, so they are rarely eaten fresh.
The best sunflower oil varieties
- "Jason" - a three-linear hybrid of the Serbian selection. Grows up to 180 cm. The basket is flat, not more than 24 cm in diameter. Productivity 45 kg / ha. Maturation term up to 108 days. The seed weight is 0.064 g. The color is dark per strip. Oil percentage is 49-50%. Resistant to diseases, pests, not showered even after full maturation.
- "Forward" - oil hybrid. Early ripe, ripens in 105 days. It has a tall stem - 185-187 cm. The diameter of the basket is 20 cm, pubescent, leaning down. The amount of oil in the composition reaches 47-49%. Husks striped, black and gray, seed weight 0.09 g. Germination - 97%. The yield rarely exceeds 44 kg / ha.
- "Oliver" early ripe hybrid of the Serbian selection. Ripens in 90-95 days. The plant is low - 135-140 cm. The baskets are medium in size, thin, the seeds can crumble, so they harvest in time. 23-45 centners of seed can be obtained per hectare, depending on care. The seeds are small - 0.06 g each, the rate of oil in the composition of 48-49%. There is resistance to various diseases, pests.
- "Rimisol" - variety of oilseed sunflower, can be grown with a significant lack of moisture. Seed weight - 0.075 g, black grains, elongated. The plant rarely grows above 150 cm, the basket is medium in size. Oil content is 48% and yield is 40 c / ha. Requires timely treatment of diseases.
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